Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Hearing and manipulating the sounds in language are important skills for learning to read. Phonemic awareness and letter knowledge have been identified in several research studies as the two key indicators of how well children will master beginning reading skills during the first two years in school. (The Threads of Reading by Karen Tankersly at ascd.org)

Understanding Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Both are about the ability to hear & manipulate the sounds in language…

  • Phonological Awareness – in words & syllables
  • Phonemic Awareness – at the phoneme (individual sounds within words) level

A helpful explanation of Phonological Awareness is at Dyslexia Help.

Phonological Interventions for Struggling Readers from Learning at the Primary Pond has this illustration of the progression of skills, and lots of ideas for activities for developing them.

Phonological Awareness at LearningCommotion has more ideas and a helpful graphic.

Printable Charts:

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Skills from Clever Classroom

Developmental Sequence from Make, Take, Teach

 

 

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness from The DailyPlanit at the Teachers Pay Teachers Super Tutor store (free)

ACTIVITIES

The following activities are great resources to add to a Phonics Kit.

Rhyming

Syllable Counting: clap or tap, or feel your mouth drop.

Identify initial sounds

Phoneme blending

  • Word Slider Cards from deceptivelyeducational. (put these in an envelope w/end cut off or a pencil box & slide out one sound at a time)

Phoneme segmenting

PLAY Online games: at Readingresource.netWords that Rhyme at Roy the Zebra, Rhyming and initial sounds at literactive,  initial sounds at funfonix (click on Game, then Collect the Stars). Beginning sounds, Nine Squares,  middle soundsfinal sounds and garden leaves at literactive.

Note that many online games require Flash and may not work well on some tablets and smartphones. It can be helpful to download the Puffin browser.

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Syllables

This is one section of a Phonics Kit that you can create. Many of the resources are provided by the websites below for personal or classroom use. See the full post for more resources!

Syllables are simple, one for every vowel sound, so there are lots of syllables around. You can clap or tap, or feel your mouth drop! Hearing syllables is a part of phonemic awareness that can be practiced with a syllable sort mat and animal flashcards.

Open and Closed Syllables

WATCH:

When a vowel is followed by a consonant, it is closed in. It often makes a short sound, as in pin. (it stops short)

A vowel is open with no consonant behind. Open syllables are often long, you will find. (it can go long)

WATCH Syllables (5:07) from Scratch Garden, Open/closed (1:38) Open/closed (6:29)

Please note that many online games require Flash and may not work well on some tablets and smartphones. It can be helpful to download the Puffin browser.

PLAY Online Games: word jumbler game at bbc.co.uk. syllable games at learninggamesforkids.com. syllable factory game at skillswise

Examples of words with open and closed syllables at sightwordgames.

Syllable DivisionOpen & Closed Vowels in Multi-syllable Words

After learning about how to divide syllables, notice that two syllable words with one middle consonant can split at the end of the first vowel. This leaves the first syllable open, which often has the long vowel sound. Examples: pa|per, be|gin, ti|ger, ro|bot, mu|sic. Note that there are exceptions: about 40% of the time the word splits after the middle consonant, making the first syllable closed and short. Examples: hab|it, ped|al, vis|it, rob|in.

Syllable Types

Bookmarks and posters from ThisReadingMama

Poster from MakeTakeTeach:

7 syllables blog pic

Poster from maketaketeach

We’ve learned about: Silent e, Bossy R, Vowel Teams, Diphthongs, and Open & Closed Syllables. Learning the different syllable types helps makes sense of the different vowel sounds in the English language. The final syllable type to learn about is Consonant -le.

Consonant -le is an unaccented final syllable that contains a consonant and -le. The e at the end is silent, and creates a new sound: “ul”

A Consonant -le Bookmark to practice writing the pattern is in this Bookmark Set Freebie.

WATCH Kids vs Phonics le (1:58), Consonant -le plus review of all syllable types (2:46)

Please note that many online games require Flash and may not work well on some tablets and smartphones. It can be helpful to download the Puffin browser.

PLAY Printable Consonant -le Go Fish from Hattie Knox

At Teachers Pay Teachers: Turtle Trouble Game & Nice Dice practice for the Consonant -le pattern.

For even more resources, check out my reading Pinterest board.

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H Brothers – Digraphs

This is one section of a Phonics Kit that you can create. Many of the resources are provided by the websites below for personal or classroom use. See the full post for more resources!

H Brothers (digraphs)

Digraphs are a pair of letters representing one sound. The consonant digraphs are CH, SH, TH, WH + NG.

Note that PH can make the F sound – Kids vs Phonics Video (2:47) & Jack Hartmann Video (2:16). GH sometimes make the F sound, but an I before GH makes a long I sound as in the word light Kids vs Phonics Video (1:23).

WATCH Jack Hartmann Digraph Song (3:58), Digraphs at Let’s Start Smart, Kids vs Phonics: CH (1:38) SH (1:28) TH (1:53) TH-Hard (1:42) WH (1:34) & NG (2:02), Hooked on Phonics: CH/SH (6:04), and Simply Phonics (digraphs start @1:28)

Screen Shot 2014-03-29 at 11.57.35 PM

H Brothers Poster from thewisenest

NG as in Sing

Elvis Presley was known as the King of Rock & Roll. He liked to wear rings when he sang. His longest song was “Suspicious Minds” (7:14) On Nov. 1, 1969, it reached number one on Billboard’s Hot 100.

Digraph Picture Sort from Thisreadingmama, SORT for NG from Science Is For Kids
Write the Pattern – see the Bookmark Set Freebie
READ the Pattern – Digraph Sentences from stickyball.net
READ Books: by author Brian Cleary: “Whose Shoes Would You Choose?” “The Thing on the Wing Can Sing” “Spring in the Kingdom of Ying”
PLAY Printable Game from the Measured Mom

Please note that many online games require Flash and may not work well on some tablets and smartphones. It can be helpful to download the Puffin browser.
PLAY Online Games: Beginning ending digraphs sadlier-oxford. Digraphs at softschools.com.  Forest Phonics also has some digraphs. Mr Nussbaum Two Letters has both digraphs & blends. Whale game & Crab Catcher game from Literactive. NG Hula PoolGopher game from Literactive.

Digraph Word Sort and story at Teachers Pay Teachers

For even more resources, check out my reading Pinterest board.

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Bossy R

This is one section of a Phonics Kit that you can create. Many of the resources are provided by the websites below for personal or classroom use. See the full post for more resources!

Bossy R – ER, IR, UR, AR, OR

An R behind any vowel changes the sound. ER, IR, and UR all have the same sound.

Note that Silent e wins sometimes: words with -are can say long a, Examples: care, share, flare. -ire can say long i, Examples: fire, tire, wire.

But notice that OR wins: adore, bore, shore, snore & UR wins: nature, picture, treasure.

An e before ar can have many different sounds: long e (hear), “er”(learn), “air” (pear), & “ar” (heart)

WATCH Bossy R (1:50) Kids vs Phonics: ER (1:53), AR (1:56) , OR (1:31), ER, IR, UR from Nessy (1:12), ER, IR, UR song (1:15)

SORT Bossy R flashcards from Lanternfish ESL, Sort Mat: Bossy R Handout from mes-english.com

Bossy R Sort from schoolisahappyplace

BossyRPoster

I added a door to mine

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bossy R Poster and activities from carlscorner

Bossy R Posters from themoffattgirls.com

Bossy R picture cards from eslphonicsworld.com (4/page)

Thisreadingmama activities

READ Bossy R sentences from stickyball.net and r-controlled vowels Fluency Passages from razzledazzleclassroom

READ Book: “Bert’s Super Circus” by Lisa Charlesworth (Scholastic Phonics Tales)

PLAY Printable Go Fish game from themeasuredmom (6 pages, 9 per page, color)

Please note that many online games require Flash and may not work well on some tablets and smartphones. It can be helpful to download the Puffin browser.

PLAY Online Games: R controlled words at Starfall, R control race at Mr Nussbaum, BBC Sandcastle game, and a Game from PBS

For even more resources, check out my reading Pinterest board.

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Diphthongs – Vowel Teams that (usually) make new sounds

This is one section of a Phonics Kit that you can create. Many of the resources are provided by the websites below for personal or classroom use. See the full post for more resources!

Vowel Teams that (usually) make new sounds (diphthongs) AU/AW, OO/OO, OU/OW, OI/OY

These vowel combinations are (mostly) not short or long, but make completely different vowel sounds. (OI/OY & OU/OW are formed with mouth positions that change, the definition of diphthong. AU/AW & OO/OO may be called vowel digraphs – two letters that combine to make one sound)

Note that AU/AW is a diphthong that makes a Short O sound, and that OW can also make a Long O sound in some words (like know and blow). Exceptions: OU can say OR like in pour or OO like in soup.

WATCH Turtle Diary: AU/AW (3:53), OI/OY (4:06), OU/OW (3:51). Kizphonics: OO (2:32) & OI/OY (0:59). Hooked on Phonics Practice (2:04) Kids vs Phonics:  OO (1:21), OO Long (1:44),  OI (1:33), OY 1:40), OI & OY (3:13), OU (1:36), OW (1:54).

Diphthong Chart from boostforreaders

Vowel Digraph Flashcards from Lanternfish ESL, Diphthongs pictures from flyingintolearning (OI/OY & OU/OW)

SORT OI/OY picture sort at classroomfreebies, AU/AW word sort from School is a Happy Place, OO/OO word sort from themeasuredmom.

PLAY Printables: OI/OY Piggy Diphthong game from Oh My Little Classity Class, Gurgling Gargoyle game from Adrian Bruce

Please note that many online games require Flash and may not work well on some tablets and smartphones. It can be helpful to download the Puffin browser.

PLAY Online Games: other vowels at galacticphonics.com – Symbaloo & BBC Sandcastle game.

For even more resources, check out my reading Pinterest board.

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Vowel Teams

This is one section of a Phonics Kit that you can create. Many of the resources are provided by the websites below for personal or classroom use. See the full post for more resources!

Vowel Teams (with the exception of diphthongs, which usually make new sounds) are often long, making the sound of the 1st vowel & the 2nd vowel is silent. This guideline is sometimes not reliable, however. There can be many exceptions. EA often makes the long E sound, but sometimes a short E sound (eat or bread). IE often makes the long I sound, but sometimes a long E sound (pie or thief).

WATCH When 2 Vowels Go Walking from Jack Hartmann (2:46) Kids vs Phonics: A (5:02), E (4:56), I (6:13) O (1:23) U (1:50). All Patterns (4:13), OA from Kizphonics (1:22).

Long Vowel Pattern Chart from This Reading Mama, & Long Vowel Pattern Chart from All About Learning Press (1 page, color)

SORTS Use the words & pictures from Vowel Digraph flashcards at Lanternfish ESL, Long Vowel Match-up from Liz’s Early Learning Spot,  AI/AY picture sort & OA/OW picture sort from 1st Grade & Fabulous (B&W), AI/AY words & picturesOA/OW color pictures from the measured mom

ACTIVITY Vowel Team Clip Cards from Fairy Poppins (includes diphthongs)

PLAY Printable Change game from Adrian Bruce (OA/OW & IE/IGH), Long A Train game & Long E Get the Sheep to the Jeep game from themeasuredmom. Long O Oh no! Toad! game from Fun in 1st with Ms B.

Please note that many online games require Flash and may not work well on some tablets and smartphones. It can be helpful to download the Puffin browser.

PLAY Online Games: Diphthongs at softschools.com and the Coconut Vowels game at arcademics. BBC games (in Explorer) and Forest Phonics from ictgames.

Bookmark Set Freebie – These bookmarks include Write the Pattern activities for Long Vowel Patterns plus more.

For even more resources, check out my reading Pinterest board.

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Silent e

This is one section of a Phonics Kit that you can create. Many of the resources are provided by the websites below for personal or classroom use. See the full post for more resources!

A letter e at the end of a word is silent and makes the vowel long. A vowel that is long says it’s name. Note that E’s like to stick together, as in tree, but with the other vowels the silent e at the end is often separated by a consonant. Together or apart, Silent e often works just the same. (although sometimes ie makes a long E sound (see Letters With More Than One Sound), and o_e can make a short U sound. (some, gloves)

SilentE3

Note that Defender D can stop silent e from making the vowel long. (like in the word badge)

a cute ape in a tree likes his home

WATCH Magic e song from KidsTV123 (2:13) Silent e from Bazillions (2:44) Magic e from Nessy (1:34)

Kids vs Phonics: A_E (2:11), EE (1:27), E_E (1:24) I_E (1:42), IE (1:47), O_E (2:17), U_E (1:56), UE (1:50)

Silent E contrast w/CVC from teacherstakeout

SORT Silent e flashcards from Lanternfish ESL, Sort Mat – Silent E Handout from mes-english.com

Silent e pictures and word building from First Grade and Fabulous

Long Vowel Words & Pictures from 123 Homeschool 4 Me

Short A/Long A, I, and O from thisreadingmama (color)

READ Long A sentences (plus all long vowels) from stickyball.net

READ BOOKS: “Nice Mice in the Rice” by Brian P Cleary “Here Comes Silent e!” by Anna Hays

Please note that many online games require Flash and may not work well on some tablets and smartphones. It can be helpful to download the Puffin browser.

PLAY online games Silent E game at starfall.com, silent e at education.com, and from softschools.com. Fridge MagnetsMagic E game at literactive.

There are more ways that vowels can be long.

Write the pattern Bookmark Set Freebie.

For even more resources, check out my reading Pinterest board.

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